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V/m

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19.9

275

0.072

87

0.229

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11.5

275

0.042

87

0.132

 

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22kHz

44kHz

66kHz

22kHz

44kHz

66kHz

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28.6

7.14

2.89

35.922

8.968

3.630

Å¬

11.2

2.35

0.668

14.067

2.952

0.839

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22kHz

44kHz

66kHz

Ž¥ŠE‘˜a”»’è

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91.4

62.2

41.4

 

6.25

6.25

6.25

 

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0.393

0.144

0.088

0.625

5.747

1.435

0.581

7.763

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0.154

0.047

0.020

0.222

2.251

0.472

0.134

2.857

 

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44kHz

66kHz

22kHz

44kHz

66kHz

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8.41

3.03

1.27

10.563

3.806

1.595

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4.23

1.13

0.27

5.313

1.419

0.339

 

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66kHz

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22kHz

44kHz

66kHz

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91.4

62.2

41.4

 

6.25

6.25

6.25

 

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0.116

0.061

0.039

0.215

1.690

0.609

0.255

2.554

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0.058

0.023

0.008

0.089

0.850

0.227

0.054

1.131

 

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Žü”g”@kHz

35

70

105

140

ŽÀŒø’l

Ž¥ŠE‘ª’è’lƒÊ‚s

0.00675

0.0012

0.000038

0.00038

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4.2 “dŽ¥Š±ÂŽÀŒ±
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‚TDlŽ@
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ŠÖS‚Ì‚ ‚é•û‚́AƒŒƒWƒ‘S•¶‚ð“üŽè‚µ‚āA“Ç‚ñ‚Å‚­‚¾‚³‚¢B

 

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‚VD“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚Æ“û‚ª‚ñƒŠƒXƒN‚Ì‚k‚‚„‚…‚ŽŒ¤‹†@

 

ƒAƒuƒXƒgƒ‰ƒNƒg‚ɉ¼–ó‚ð‚‚¯‚½B@ì¬G@‚Q‚O‚O‚R|‚U|‚Q‚X@

˜_•¶–¼FElectric Blanket Use and Breast Cancer in the Nurses Health Study@
@@“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚Æ“û‚ª‚ñ

Œ¤‹†ŽÒFFrancine Ladeni1j, Lucas M. Neas, Paige E. Tolbert, Michelle D. Holmes, Susan E. Hankinson, Donna Spiegelman, Frank E. Speizer, and David J. Hunter,
i1j Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
ŒfÚŽFAmerican Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 152, No.1 : 41-49 @2000@

Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) have been hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer, and electric blankets represent an important source of exposure to EMFs.
“dŽ¥ŠE‚ª“û‚ª‚ñ‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚³‚¹‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰¼à‚ª‚ ‚èA“d‹C–Ñ•z‚Í‚±‚Ì“dŽ¥ŠE‚Ì”­¶Œ¹‚Å‚ ‚éB

The authors examined the relation between electric blanket use and invasive breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study.
ƒi[ƒX‚ÌŒ’NŒ¤‹†‚̈êŠÂ‚Æ‚µ‚āA“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚Æ“û‚ª‚ñ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚𒲍¸‚µ‚½B

On the biennial questionnaire in 1992, 87,497 women provided information on this exposure during three consecutive time periods.
1992”N‚ɁA“ñ”N‚Ɉê“x‚ÌŽ¿–â•\‚ŁA87497–¼‚©‚ç˜A‘±‚µ‚½3ŠúŠÔ‚ÌŠÔ‚É”˜˜I‚µ‚½î•ñ‚ð“üŽè‚µ‚½B

In a prospective analysis with 301,775 person-years of follow-up through 1996 (954 cases), the relative risk for any electric blanket use was not elevated (relative risk (RR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 1.24) after controlling for breast cancer risk

factors.
1996
”N‚܂ł́A‘OŒü‚«‚̒ǐՒ²¸‚Łi‘ΏۂÍ301,775l”N‚Ì‹K–́jA“û‚ª‚ñƒŠƒXƒN—vˆö‚𒲐®‚µ‚½Œã‚Ì“d‹C–Ñ•zŽg—p‚É‚æ‚é“û‚ª‚ñ‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚Ì‘‰Á‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½A‘Š‘Ί댯“x‚Í1.08A‚X‚T“M—Š«‹æŠÔ‚Í0.95|1.24‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

There was a weak association between breast cancer and electric blanket use at least 16 years before diagnosis and long-term use in age-adjusted analyses but not in multivariate models.
‚µ‚©‚µA“û‚ª‚ñ‚Ɛf’f‚³‚ê‚é‘O‚É16”NˆÈã“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½ê‡‚ƁA”N—î‚𒲐®‚µ‚½’·ŠúŠÔ‚Ì“d‹C–Ñ•zŽg—p‚ł́A“û‚ª‚ñƒŠƒXƒN‘‰Á‚ÉŽã‚¢ŠÖŒW‚ª‚Ý‚ç‚ꂽB

In a retrospective analysis of 1,318,683 person-years of follow-up (2,426 cases), the multivariate relative risk associated with use before disease follow-up began was null (RR = 1.05, 95% CI:0.95,@1.16).
1,318,683l”N‚ɑΏۋK–Í‚ð‘å‚«‚­‚µAŒã‚ëŒü‚«‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚ðs‚Á‚½A2,426‚̏ǗႪ‚ ‚èA“û‚ª‚ñ‚Ɛf’f‚³‚ê‚é‘O‚Ì“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚Ì“û‚ª‚ñƒŠƒXƒN‚Ì‘‰Á‚ÍŒ©‚ç‚ê‚È‚©‚Á‚½B‘Š‘Ί댯“x‚Í1.05A96%M—Š«‹æŠÔ‚Í‚OD‚X‚T|‚PD‚P‚U‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

Similar results were obtained in analyses stratified
i‘w‚É‚·‚éj bymenopause iŒŽŒo•ÂŽ~jand restricted to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers.

ŒŽŒo•ÂŽ~‚ƃGƒXƒgƒƒQƒ“ƒŒƒZƒvƒ^[—z«”½‰ž‚ðŽ‚Âl‚ÉŒÀ’肵‚½ê‡‚Å‚àA“û‚ª‚ñ‚ƃŠƒXƒN‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ä‚Í“¯—l‚ÈŠÖŒW‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

While 95% confidence intervals for these estimates did not exclude small risks, overall, results did not support an association between breast cancer risk and exposure to EMFs from electric blankets.

¡‰ñ‚Ì’²¸‚ŁA“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚É‚æ‚é“dŽ¥ŠE”˜˜I‚É‚æ‚é“û‚ª‚ñ‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚Æ‚ÌŠÖ˜A‚ÍŒ©‚ç‚ê‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚ªA‚X‚T“M—Š«‹æŠÔ‚ðl‚¦‚½ê‡A¬‚³‚¢ƒŠƒXƒN‚Ì‘¶Ý‚͏œŠO‚µ‚È‚¢B

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‚WD“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚É‚æ‚é“û‚ª‚ñƒŠƒXƒN‚ð”Û’è‚·‚é‚l‚ƒ‚d‚Œ‚’‚‚™Œ¤‹†@

 

ƒAƒuƒXƒgƒ‰ƒNƒg‚Ì‚Ý“üŽè@‰¼–ó‚ð‚‚¯‚½B@ì¬F@‚Q‚O‚O‚R|‚S|‚P‚Q

ŒfÚŽFEPIDEMIOLOGY 2001;12:613-617
˜_•¶–¼FElectric Blanket or Mattress Cover Use and Breast Cancer Incidence in Women 50-79 Years of Age
—«“û‚ª‚ñ‚Æ“d‹C–Ñ•z‚âƒ}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW
Œ¤‹†ŽÒFJane A. McElroyi1j; Polly A. Newcomb; Patrick L. Remington; Kathleen M. Egan; Linda Titus-Ernstoff; Amy Trentham-Dietz; John M. Hampton; John A. Baron; Meir J. Stampfer; Walter C. Willett
1
FUniversity of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI;

ŠT—vF
Previous research has demonstrated inconsistent associations between electromagnetic radiation, especially from electric blanket use, and breast cancer.
‚±‚ê‚Ü‚Å‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚ł́A“û‚ª‚ñ‚Æ“dŽ¥ŠEA“Á‚É“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚ÍŽñ”öˆêŠÑ‚µ‚½Œ‹‰Ê‚ª“¾‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

Breast cancer risk according to electric blanket or mattress cover use was examined as part of a multicenter population-based case-control study.
“d‹C–Ñ•z‚à‚µ‚­‚̓}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚ÌŽg—p‚Æ‚ª‚ñƒŠƒXƒN‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚̏Ǘá‘Ώƌ¤‹†‚ðs‚Á‚½B 


Breast cancer patients 50-79 years of age (N = 1949) were identified from statewide tumor registries in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin from the period June 1994 to July 1995.

1994”N6ŒŽ‚©‚ç1995”N7ŒŽ‚ÌŠÔ‚Ì50-79Î‚Ì“û‚ª‚ñŠ³ŽÒ‚ðAƒ}ƒTƒ`ƒ…[ƒZƒbƒcB‚Æ‚»‚Ì‘¼‚Ì“ñB‚ŁAB‚ª‚ñ“o˜^‚©‚ç’Šo‚µ‚½B

Women of similar age were randomly selected from population lists as controls.
‘ΏƌQ‚͏Z–¯“o˜^‚©‚烉ƒ“ƒ_ƒ€‚É‘I‘ð‚µ‚½B


Information regarding electric blanket and mattress cover use and breast cancer risk factors was obtained through telephone interviews.
“d‹C–Ñ•z‚âƒ}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚ÌŽg—p‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éî•ñ‚́A“d˜bƒCƒ“ƒ^ƒrƒ…[‚Å“üŽè‚µ‚½B

After adjustment for age, body mass index, and other breast cancer risk factors, the risk of breast cancer was similar among ever-users (relative risk = 0.93; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.06) and lower among current users than among never-users (relative risk = 0.79; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.95).
”N—îA”ì–ž—¦iHj‚â‚»‚Ì‘¼‚Ì“û‚ª‚ñƒŠƒXƒN—vˆö‚𒲐®‚µ‚ĉðÍ‚µ‚½BŒ‹‰Ê‚́Au‚©‚‚Ďg—p‚µ‚½vŒQ‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚Í0.93(0.82-1.06)Au‚©‚‚Ďg—pvŒQ‚É”ä‚ׂāuŒ»ÝŽg—pvŒQ‚Ì‘Š‘΃ŠƒX‚‹‘ƒ‚Í’á‚­A0.79(0.66-1.06)‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

There was no evidence of a dose-response relation with increasing number of months that electric blankets had been used.
“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚½ŠúŠÔ‚Ì’·‚³‚Ƃ́u—ʁ\”½‰žvŠÖŒW‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

This study provides evidence against a positive association between electric blanket or mattress cover use and breast cancer.
‚±‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚́A“d‹C–Ñ•z‚âƒ}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚ÌŽg—p‚Æ“û‚ª‚ñ‚̃|ƒWƒeƒBƒu‚ÈŠÖŒW‚ɑ΂·‚锽Ø‚Æ‚È‚éB

•Åƒgƒbƒv‚É–ß‚é

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‚XD“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚ÆŽq‹{“à–ŒŽîᇂƂ̊֌W@

 

ƒAƒuƒXƒgƒ‰ƒNƒg‚Ì‚Ý“üŽèA‰¼–ó‚ð‚‚¯‚½Bì¬F@‚Q‚O‚O‚R|‚U|‚R‚O@

ŒfÚŽFAm J Epidemiol 2002; 156:262-267.
˜_•¶–¼FEndometrial Cancer Incidence in Relation to Electric Blanket Use
“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚ÆŽq‹{“à–ŒŽîᇂƂ̊֌W


Œ¤‹†ŽÒFJane A. McElroyi1j, Polly A. Newcomb, Amy Trentham-Dietz, John M. Hampton, Marty S. Kanarek and Patrick L. Remington
i1j University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI.

Endometrial cancer is associated with endogenous and exogenous estrogen
@excess.

Žq‹{“à–ŒŽîᇂ͓àˆö«‚ÆŠOˆö«‚̃GƒXƒgƒƒQƒ“‰ßè‚ÉŠÖŒW‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB

Some investigators have posited that electromagnetic fields may influence cancer risk through estrogenic hormonal mechanisms; however, there have been no studies reporting on electric blanket exposure in relation to endometrial cancer.
Œ¤‹†ŽÒ‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A”­î«ƒzƒ‹ƒ‚ƒ“‚Ì‹@”\‚É‚æ‚èA“dŽ¥ŠE”˜˜I‚Í”­ŠàƒŠƒXƒN‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ɖ¼’肵‚Ä‚¢‚éB
‚µ‚©‚µA“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚ªŽq‹{“à–ŒŽîᇂɊ֌W‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¤‹†‚Í‚È‚¢B

The authors examined this possible association between endometrial cancer risk and electric blanket or mattress cover use as part of a population-based, case-control study.
‚»‚±‚ŁA“d‹C–Ñ•zEƒ}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚ÌŽg—p‚ªŽq‹{“à–ŒŽîᇂɊ֌W‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚©AÇ—á‘Ώƌ¤‹†‚ðs‚Á‚½B

This analysis included incident endometrial cancer cases 40-79 years of age, interviewed during 1994 (n = 148; response rate, 87%) and identified from the Wisconsin tumor registry.
Šà“o˜^‚©‚甲‚«o‚µ‚½‚S‚O|‚V‚XÎ‚ÌŽq‹{“à–ŒŽîᇂ̔­•aÇ—á‚ɑ΂µ‚āA‚P‚X‚X‚S”N‚ɃCƒ“ƒ^ƒrƒ…[‚ðs‚Á‚½AÇ—ᐔ‚P‚S‚W–¼A‰ž“š—¦‚Í‚W‚V“B

Female controls of similar age were randomly selected from population lists (n = 659; response rate, 85%).
—«‚̑ΏƌQ‚͏Z–¯•[‚©‚烉ƒ“ƒ_ƒ€‚É‘I‘ð‚µ‚½B‚U‚T‚X–¼A‰ž‘ø—¦‚W‚T“B

Information regarding electric blanket and mattress cover use and endometrial cancer risk factors was obtained through structured telephone interviews approximately 1 year after diagnosis.
“d‹C–Ñ•zEƒ}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚ÌŽg—p‚ÆŽq‹{“à–ŒŽîᇂȂǂɊւ·‚éî•ñ‚́Af’fŒã‚P”N‚ŁA“d˜b‚É‚æ‚éƒCƒ“ƒ^ƒrƒ…[‚Å“üŽè‚µ‚½

After adjustment for age, body mass index, and postmenopausal hormone use, the risk of endometrial cancer was similar among ever users (odds ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.70, 1.55) and among current users (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.54) as compared with never users.
”N—îA”ì–ž—¦AŒŽŒo•ÂŽ~Œã‚̃zƒ‹ƒ‚ƒ“Žg—p‚̈öŽq‚𒲐®‚µA“d‹C–Ñ•z‚È‚Ç‚ð‰ß‹Ž‚ÉŽg—p‚µ‚½ê‡‚̃IƒbƒY”ä‚Í‚PD‚O‚Si‚X‚T“M—Š«‚OD‚V‚O|‚PD‚T‚TjAŒ»Ý‚àŽg—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éê‡‚̃IƒbƒY”ä‚Í‚OD‚W‚Vi‚X‚U“M—Š«‚OD‚S‚X|‚PD‚T‚Sj‚Å“¯‚¶’ö“x‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

Despite its small size and potential misclassification of exposure, this study provides evidence against an association between electric blanket or mattress cover use and endometrial cancer.
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‚XAD2007”N‚ÌAbel‚ç‚Ì“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÆŽq‹{‚ª‚ñ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚ðŽ¦´‚·‚錤‹†

‹LF‚Q‚O‚P‚P|‚P‚P|‚P‚U
ŒfÚŽFEuropean Journal of Cancer Prevention: June 2007 - Volume 16 - Issue 3 - pp 243-250
ƒ^ƒCƒgƒ‹FUse of electric blankets and association with prevalencei—¬sA‚Í‚â‚èjendometrialiŽq‹{“à–Œ‚́j cancer
Œ¤‹†ŽÒFAbel EL, Hendrix SL, et al:
Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA

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“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚ÍŽq‹{“à–Œ‚ÌŠà‚Ì—¬s‚ðA“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚È‚¢ŒQ‚É”ä‚ׂāA‚P‚T“‚‚߂邱‚Æ‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½AƒIƒbƒY”ä‚Í‚PD‚P‚T‚Å‚X‚T“M—Š‹æŠÔ‚Í‚PD‚O‚R|‚PD‚Q‚V‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B
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9BD“d‹C–Ñ•z‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚Ə¬Ž™”]Žîᇂ̊֌W‚̏Ǘá‘Ώƌ¤‹†@1996”N

‚܂Ƃ߁F@‚Q‚O‚O‚P|‚U|‚T

ˆÈ‰º‚Ì—l‚ÈŒ¤‹†‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B

Œ¤‹†ŽÒFSusan Preston-Martin et al;
Œ´’˜FBrain Tumor Risk in Children in Relation to Use of Electric @Blankets and Water Bed Heators
ŒfÚŽGŽFAmerican Journal of Epidemiology. @Vol. 143 No.11 1996

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1984-1991
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ŠÂ‹«Ý’èðŒ‚͏Z‘”MŠÂ‹«‚ÌŽÀ‘Ô’²¸‚ðŽQl‚ɁA“~ŠúŽº‰·13‹CERH70%A’†ŠÔŠú20‹C-18‹CERH60“ˆê’è‚Æ‚µ‚½B
Q°“à‰·“xðŒ‚Í“d‹C–Ñ•z‚̉·“x§Œä‚ŁA‡@‹­FI–éÝ’è‚TA‡A’†FI–éÝ’è3A‡B‚‚•to1 :AQŽž‹­ˆê’è90•ªŒãŽãÝ’èA‡Cauto2 :AQŽž‹­ˆê’è90•ªŒãŽãÝ’èA‡Doffˆê’Ê“d–³‚µ‚Ì‚TðŒ‚Æ‚µ‚½B‡E’†ŠÔŠú‚Í“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B‘ª’荀–Ú‚Æ‚µ‚āA”]”gAS””AŠÂ‹«EQ°“à‰·Ž¼“xA”畆‰·“™‚𑪒肵‚½B

Œ‹‰ÊF‡@Q°“à‰·“x‚ÍOff‚Å‚Í30‹CˆÈ‰º‚Æ’á‚­A‚»‚ÌŒãã¸‚ÉŽžŠÔ‚ª‚©‚©‚Á‚½‚ªA“d‹C–Ñ•zðŒ‚Å‚Í“ü°Žž‚Å‚à30‹C‚ð‰z‚¦‚‚©‚Á‚½B‹­‚Å‚Í“ü°Œã™X‚ɏ㏸‚µ35Ž‚ð‰z‚¦‚鍂‰·‚Æ‚È‚èA‘Ì“®‚̉e‹¿‚Æ‚Ý‚ç‚ê‚錃‚µ‚¢ã‰º“®‚ª”F‚ß‚ç‚ꂽBauto1‚Å‚Í“ü°’¼Œã‚©‚çã¸‚·‚邪A120•ªŒã‚É33‹C+/-10Ž‚É•Û‚½‚êA’†ŠÔŠú‚Æ‚Ù‚Ú“¯‚¶‰·“x‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‡A‘«”w”畆‰·‚́AOff‚Å”ñí‚ɏ㏸‚ÉŽžŠÔ‚ª‚©‚©‚Á‚½‚ªA‘¼ðŒ‚Å‚Í”äŠr“I‘¬‚­ã¸‚ðŠJŽn‚µ‚½B‡B‡–°Œo‰ß‚Å‚Íauto1‚ª‘O”¼‚ɈÀ’肵‚½[‡–°AŒã”¼‚ÉREM‡–°‚ª‘½‚­‚Ý‚ç‚ê‚éŒXŒü‚É‚ ‚Á‚½BOff‚͐‡–°öŽž‚ª’·‚­A“~Šú‚Å‚à‘¼‚ÌðŒ‚Å‚Í“ü–°öŽž‚ª’Z‚©‚Á‚½B

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14
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–2007”NˆÈ~A‡–°ŠÂ‹«Šw‰ï‚̃Vƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚̃ŒƒWƒ‚ð“üŽè‚µ‚悤‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚«‚½‚ªA‚Å‚«‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

–‡–°ŠÂ‹«Šw‰ï‰ï’·@“ú‘Ì‘å‚̈äìŽ‚©‚ç‚̘A—@‚Q‚O‚P‚R|‚U|‚P‚O
u‡–°ŠÂ‹«Šw‰ï‚Å”­•\‚³‚ꂽ“d‹C–Ñ•z‚̐‡–°‚ւ̉e‹¿‚́A“d‹C–Ñ•z‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚𑪒肵‚Ẳe‹¿‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢A‹ß“¡‚³‚ñ‚ªŸŽè‚É“dŽ¥”g‚ÆŠÖ˜A‚ÆŒ¾‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚©‚à‚µ‚ê‚È‚¢Bv‚ƁB

–‡–°ŠÂ‹«Šw‰ï‚ÌŽ––±‹Ç‚©‚çA‘æ16‰ñ‡–°ŠÂ‹«ƒVƒ“ƒ|i2000”Nj‚ł̓ޗǏ—Žq‘å‚ÌŒ¤‹†”­•\‚̃ŒƒWƒ‚ð‘—‚Á‚Ä‚à‚ç‚Á‚½B
—é–Ø—LˆÈŽq‚çu“d‹C–Ñ•z‚É‚æ‚éQ°“à‰·“x§Œä‚ªI–鐇–°‚É‹y‚Ú‚·‰e‹¿v‚Å‚ ‚éB

–‚Q‚O‚P‚R|‚U|‚P‚O‚悤‚â‚­“ޗǏ—Žq‘å‚Ì‹v•Û•‹³Žö‚ƘA—‚ª‚ƂꂽB
1999
”N‚Ì—é–Ø—LˆÈŽq‚Ì‘²˜_EC˜_‚̃Rƒs[‚ðˆË—Š‚µ‚½‚ªA‚±‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚Å‚Í“d‹C–Ñ•z‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚ɂ͘_‹y‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢‚Æ‚È‚èA”ŽŽm˜_•¶‚Í’f”O‚µ‚½B

15
jBEMSJ‚Ì‚Ü‚Æ‚ß

EQ‹ïŠÖŒW‚̔̔„ƒTƒCƒg‚Ɂu“d‹C–Ñ•z‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚͐‡–°‚ɉe‹¿‚·‚év‚Æ‚¢‚¤˜_‚ª“WŠJ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½B
‚¢‚¸‚ê‚̃TƒCƒg‚àA‚»‚̘_‹’‚𖾊m‚ÉŽ¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B
EFX‚ÆŠÖ˜Aî•ñ‚ð’T‚Á‚Ä‚Ý‚½‚ªA–¾Šm‚Ș_‹’‚ÍŒ©‚‚©‚ç‚È‚¢B
E‡–°ŠÂ‹«Šw‰ï‚Å”­•\‚³‚ꂽ“d‹C–Ñ•z‚É‚æ‚鐇–°‚ւ̉e‹¿‚́A“d‹C–Ñ•z‚É‚æ‚é‰Á”M‚É”º‚¤‰e‹¿‚Å‚ ‚èA‚»‚ê‚ç‚ÌŠwpŒ¤‹†˜_•¶‚ł́A“d‹C–Ñ•z‚©‚ç‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚É‚ÍŒ¾‹y‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B“d‹C–Ñ•z‚©‚ç‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚Ì‘ª’è‚às‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

E‡–°ŠÂ‹«Šw‰ï‚̏Š‘®‚ÌŒ¤‹†ŽÒ‚Ì’†‚ɂ́A”÷Žã‚È“dŽ¥”g‚àŒ’N‰e‹¿‚ ‚è‚Æ‚·‚éà‚ð¥‚¦‚él‚ª‚¢‚éB
‚±‚ê‚ç‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚Ì–â‘è‚ðA“d‹C–Ñ•z‚̉Á”M‚É‚æ‚鐇–°‚ւ̉e‹¿‚Ö‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚ÆŒ‹‚Ñ•t‚¯‚āA‹­ˆø‚Ɂu“d‹C–Ñ•z‚Ì“dŽ¥”g‚͐‡–°‚ɉe‹¿‚·‚é‚̂ŁAŠëŒ¯v‚Æ‚¢‚¤à‚ðì‚èã‚°‚½‚à‚̂Ɛ„’肳‚ê‚éB

‚±‚̘_‚ªAQ‹ï‰®‚Ȃǂ̃TƒCƒg‚É“]Ú‚³‚ꂽ‚à‚̂ƁB„’è‚·‚éB


•Åƒgƒbƒv‚É–ß‚é

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‚P‚OD“d‹C‰·”Mƒxƒbƒh‚Æ”DP@‚k‚…‚…‚Ì2000”NŒ¤‹†


ƒAƒuƒXƒgƒ‰ƒNƒg‚ð“üŽèB@‰¼–ó‚ð‚‚¯‚½B@ì¬G@‚Q‚O‚O‚R|‚W|‚P‚X

ŒfÚŽGEpidemiology 2000 Jul;11(4):406-15@
˜_•¶–¼FThe use of electric bed heaters and the risk of clinically recognized spontaneous abortion.

“d‹C‰·”Mƒxƒbƒh‚ÌŽg—p‚ƗՏ°“I‚É”F’肳‚ꂽŽ©‘R—¬ŽY‚̃ŠƒXƒN@

Œ¤‹†ŽÒFLee GM, Neutra RR, Hristova L, Yost M, Hiatt RA.
Environmental Health Investigations Branch, Department of Health Services, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
@

ŠT—v@
We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate the relation of spontaneous abortion and electric bed heater use during the first trimester of pregnancy.
@
”DPÅ‰‚Ì‚Rƒ–ŒŽŠÔ‚É“d‹C‰·”Mƒxƒbƒg‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚½ê‡‚ÆŽ©‘R—¬ŽY‚ÌŠÖŒW‚𒲍¸‚·‚邽‚߂ɁA‘OŒü‚«‚̃Rƒz[ƒgŒ¤‹†‚ðs‚Á‚½B

Compared with non-users, rates of spontaneous abortion were lower for
@women who used electric bed heaters.
”ñŽg—pŽÒ‚É”ä‚ׂāA“d‹C‰·”Mƒxƒbƒg‚ÌŽg—pŽÒ‚ÌŽ©‘R—¬ŽY‚ÌŠ„‡‚Í’á‚©‚Á‚½B@

The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the two major devices used, electric blankets (N = 524) and waterbeds (N = 796), were, respectively, 0.8 (95% CI = 0.5-1.1) and 0.9 (95% CI = 0.7-1.2).
ƒIƒbƒY”ä‚Æ‚X‚T%M—Š‹æŠÔ‚́A“d‹C–Ñ•z‚ÌŽg—p‚ɑ΂µ‚Ä‚Í‚OD‚Wi‚b‚hF‚OD‚T|‚PD‚PjA“d‹C‰·”M…ƒxƒbƒg‚ÌŽg—p‚Å‚Í‚OD‚Wi‚b‚nF‚OD‚V|‚PD‚Pj‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B@

An increase of risk with increasing intensity (setting-duration combination) of use was not observed.
@
”˜˜I‹­“x‚É”º‚¤ƒŠƒXƒN‚Ì‘‰Á‚ÍŒ©‚ç‚ê‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

Users of electric blankets at low settings for most of the night (N = 171) had lower risks of spontaneous abortion than non-users (adjusted odds ratio = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-1.0).

“d‹C–Ñ•z‚̐ݒè‚ð’á‚­‚µ‚Ä‚ ‚éê‡i‰·“x‚̐ݒè‚ð’á‚­‚·‚éA‚·‚È‚í‚¿Ž¥ŠE‚È‚Ç‚Ì”­¶—Ê‚ª­‚È‚¢j‚́A”ñŽg—pŽÒ‚É”ä‚ׂăIƒbƒY”ä‚Í‚OD‚Ti‚b‚iF‚OD‚R|‚PD‚Oj‚Æ’á‚©‚Á‚½B‘ΏۂƂµ‚½Ç—ᐔ‚Í‚P‚V‚P–¼B

Twenty women who used electric blankets at a high setting for 1 hour or less had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.0 (95% CI = 1.1-8.3), but we found no spontaneous abortions among the few women (N = 13) who used a high setting for 2 or more hours.

Ý’è‚ð‚‚­‚µ‚āAŽg—pŽžŠÔ‚ª‚PŽžŠÔ‚©‚»‚êˆÈ‰º‚Ì‚Q‚O–¼‚ð‘ΏۂɌvŽZ‚ðs‚¤‚ƁAƒIƒbƒY”ä‚Í‚RD‚Oi‚b‚hF‚PD‚P|‚WD‚Rj‚ƍ‚‚©‚Á‚½‚ªAÝ’肪‚‚­AŽg—pŽžŠÔ‚ª‚QŽžŠÔ‚à‚µ‚­‚Í‚»‚êˆÈã‚Ì‚P‚R–¼‚ð‘Ώۂɂµ‚½ê‡‚ɂ́AŽ©‘R—¬ŽY‚ÍŒ©‚ç‚ê‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

We found that exposure rankings of the magnetic field time-weighted average and a rate of change metric did not correspond monotonically to the pattern of spontaneous abortion risks and that electric blankets contribute less to overnight time-weighted average magnetic fields than has been thought.
@

ŽžŠÔ‰Ád•½‹Ï‚ÌŽ¥ŠE”˜˜I‚ÍŽ©‘R—¬ŽY‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚Æ’P’²‚ÈŠÖŒW‚É‚Í‚È‚­A“d‹C–Ñ•z‚Í–éŠÔ‚ÌŽžŠÔ‰ÁdŽ¥ŠE”˜˜I•½‹Ï’l‚ɑ΂µ‚āAl‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚قǂɂ́AŠñ—^—¦‚͍‚‚­‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

•Åƒgƒbƒv‚É–ß‚é

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‚P‚PD“d‹C‰·”Mƒxƒbƒh‚Æ”DP@‚k‚…‚…‚Ì2002”N‚ÌŒ¤‹†@


ƒAƒuƒXƒgƒ‰ƒNƒg‚ð“üŽè@‰¼–ó‚ð‚‚¯‚½@ì¬F@‚Q‚O‚O‚R|‚S|‚Q‚R@
Ž¥ŠE‚Ö‚Ì”˜˜I‚ª‘½‚¢‚Æ—¬ŽY‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚ª‘‚·A‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰uŠwŒ¤‹†B@

ŒfÚŽFEPIDEMIOLOGY 2002;13:21-31@
˜_•¶–¼FA Nested Case-Control Study of Residential and Personal Magnetic Field Measures and Miscarriages 
ZŠÂ‹«‚¨‚æ‚ьl‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‚Ö‚Ì–\˜I‚Æ—¬ŽY‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éÇ—á‘Ώƌ¤‹†

Œ¤‹†ŽÒFGeraldine M. Lee; Raymond R. Neutra; Lilia Hristova; Michael Yost; Robert A. Hiatt@
From the Environmental Health Investigations Branch California Department of Health Services, Oakland, CA;
@

ŠT—vF@
We conducted a nested case-control study (177 cases, 550 controls) to assess the relation between retrospective magnetic field measures and clinical miscarriage among members of the northern California Kaiser Permanente medical care system.
@
–kƒJƒŠƒtƒHƒ‹ƒjƒA‚̃ƒfƒJƒ‹ƒPƒAƒVƒXƒeƒ€‚̉ïˆõ‚ð‘ΏۂƂµ‚āAŒã‚ëŒü‚«‚ÌŽ¥ŠE–\˜I•]‰¿‚Æ—¬ŽY‚ÌŠ¯‰v‚𒲍¸‚µ‚½AÇ—á‚Í‚P‚V‚VA‘ΏƂÍ550‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

We also conducted a prospective substudy of 219 participants of the same parent cohort to determine whether 12-week and 30-week exposure assessments were similar.
‚³‚ç‚ɁA‚±‚ÌŒ¤‹†‘ΏۏW’c‚©‚çA219–¼‚Ì‹¦—͎҂𓾂āA‘OŒü‚«‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚ðs‚Á‚½B12TŠÔ‚Æ30TŠÔ‚Ì–\˜I•]‰¿Œ‹‰Ê‚Å‚Ç‚¤‚È‚é‚©‚ðŒ¤‹†‚µ‚½B@

We evaluated wire codes, area measures, and three personal meter metrics: (1) the average difference between consecutive levels (a rate-of-change metric), (2) the maximum level, and (3) the time-weighted average.
ƒƒCƒ„[ƒR[ƒhA’nˆæ‚Ì–\˜IƒŒƒxƒ‹A‚»‚µ‚Ȑl–\˜I‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ä‚Í•Ï“®‚ÌŠ„‡AÅ‘å’lAŽžŠÔ‚ɏd‚Ý•t‚¯‚µ‚½•½‹Ï‚ð•]‰¿Žw•W‚Æ‚µ‚½B

For wire codes and area measures we found little association.
ƒƒCƒ„[ƒR[ƒh‚Æ’nˆæ‚Ì–\˜IƒŒƒxƒ‹‚Å‚Í—¬ŽY‚ÆŽ¥ŠE–\˜I‚Æ‚ÌŠÖ˜A‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½B@

For the personal metrics (30 weeks after last menstrual period), we found positive associations.
ŒÂl–\˜IiÅŒã‚ÌŒŽŒo‚©‚ç30TŠÔŒã‚Ì–\˜IƒŒƒxƒ‹j‚ł̓|ƒWƒeƒBƒu‚ÈŠÖŒW‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½B

Each exposure was divided into quartiles, with the lowest quartile as referent.
–\˜I‹­“x‚ð4•ªŠ„‚µAÅ‚à’á‚¢–\˜IŒQ‚ðŽQÆƒŒƒxƒ‹‚Æ‚µ‚½B

Starting with the highest quartile, adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 3.1 (95% CI = 1.6-6.0), 2.3 (95% CI = 1.2-4.4), and 1.5 (95% CI = 0.8-3.1) for the rate-of-change metric; 2.3 (95% CI = 1.2-4.4), 1.9 (95% CI = 1.0-3.5), and 1.4 (95% CI = 0.7-2.8) for the maximum value; and 2.3 (95% CI = 1.2-4.4), 1.9 (95% CI = 1.0-3.5), and 1.4 (95% CI = 0.7-2.8)for the time-weighted average.

‚»‚ꂼ‚ê‚̃IƒbƒY”ä‚́A‚‚¢–\˜IŒQ‚©‚ç’á‚¢‚Ù‚¤‚ÉŒü‚©‚Á‚Ä‚»‚ꂼ‚ê‚΂­‚ë‚Ì•Ï“®‚ÌŒƒ‚µ‚³‚Å‚Í3.1 (CIF1.6-6.0), 2.3 (CIF1.2-4.4), 1.5 (CIF 0.8-3.1)@Å‘å’l‚ł́A2.3 (CIF1.2-4.4), 1.9 (CIF1.0-3.5), 1.4 (CIF0.7-2.8)@ŽžŠÔ‚ŏd‚Ý•t‚¯‚µ‚½•½‹Ï’l‚Å‚Í2.3 (CIF1.2-4.4), 1.9 (CI:1.0-3.5), 1.4 (CI: 0.7-2.8)‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B@—ʁ\”½‰žŠÖŒW‚É‚ ‚éB

The odds ratio conveyed by being above a 24-hour time-weighted average of 2 milligauss was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.5-2.1).
24ŽžŠÔ‚ÌŽžŠÔ‚ɏd‚Ý•t‚¯‚µ‚½•½‹Ï–\˜I‚Å‚Qƒ~ƒŠƒKƒEƒX‚ð’´‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ƁAƒIƒbƒY”ä‚Í1.0iCI:0.5-2.1j‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

Exposure assessment measurements at 12 weeks were poorly correlated with those taken at 30 weeks.
12
TŠÔ‚ÌŽ¥ŠE–\˜I•]‰¿‚ƁA30TŠÔ‚ÌŽ¥ŠE–\˜I•]‰¿‚Å‚Í‘ŠŠÖ‚ª‚Æ‚ê‚È‚©‚Á‚½B@

Nonetheless, the prospective substudy results regarding miscarriage risk were consistent with the nested study results.
‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çA‚±‚Ì‘OŒü‚«‚̃TƒuŒ¤‹†‚Å“¾‚ç‚ꂽ—¬ŽYƒŠƒXƒN‚́A‘¼‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚Æ“¯‚¶Œ‹‰Ê‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

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‚P‚QD“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚©‚ç‚̃}ƒCƒNƒ”g“d”g‚̘R‰k@@@

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‚P‚RDHatch‚̉Ɠd»•i‚Ə¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•a‰uŠw1998‚ÌŒ¤‹†@


ƒAƒuƒXƒgƒ‰ƒNƒg‚̂݉¼–ó@@ì¬F‚Q‚O‚O‚R|‚U|‚P‚S@

˜_•¶–¼FAssociation between Chi1dhood Acute Lymphob1astic Leukemia and Use of E1ectrica1 App1iances during Pregnancy and Chi1dhood
Œ¤‹†ŽÒFE.E. Hatch et al;
ŒfÚŽGEpidemiology 1998;9:Z34-Z45

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As part of a comprehensive study of residential magnetic field exposure in nine mid-western and mid-Atlantic states, we evaluated the use of appliances by 640 patients with acute lymphoblastic Leukemia, O-14 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 1993, and 640 matched control children.

ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚Ì9‚̏B‚ōs‚í‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éZŠÂ‹«‰º‚É‚¨‚¯‚鎥ŠE–\˜I‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚̈êŠÂ‚Æ‚µ‚āAŽg—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é“d‹C‹@Ší‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚𒲍¸‚µ‚½B‹}«ƒŠƒ“ƒp«¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•ai‚`‚k‚kj‚ÌŠ³ŽÒ640–¼i1989”N‚©‚ç1993”N‚É‚©‚¯‚āA0-14Î‚Å”’ŒŒ•a‚ÆŽ‡f’f‚³‚ꂽƒP[ƒXj‚Æ640–¼‚̑ΏƂð‘ΏۂƂµ‚ÄŒ¤‹†‚ðs‚Á‚½B

Mothers were interviewed regarding use of electrical appliances during their pregnancy with the subjects and the child's postnatal use.
Žq‹Ÿ‚Ì•êe‚ɃCƒ“ƒ^ƒrƒ…[‚µA”DPŠúŠÔ‚Ì“d‹C‹@Ší‚ÌŽg—pó‘ԁAŽq‹Ÿ‚Ì“d‹C‹@Ší‚ÌŽg—pó‘Ԃ𒲍¸‚µ‚½B

The risk of acute 1ymphoblastic leukemia was elevated in children whose mothers reported use of an electric blanket or mattress pad during pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) = 1.59; 95%confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-2.29] but was reduced for use of sewing machines during pregnancy (OR = O.76; 95% CI = 0.59-0.98).

•êe‚ª”DP’†‚É“d‹C–Ñ•z‚âƒ}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ƁA‚`‚k‚k‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚ª‘‘å‚·‚éAƒIƒbƒY”ä‚Í‚PD‚T‚Xi‚X‚T“‚b‚hF‚PD‚P‚P|‚QD‚Q‚XjB‚µ‚©‚µƒ~ƒVƒ“‚ÌŽg—p‚̓ŠƒXƒN‚ð‰º‚°‚Ä‚¢‚éAƒIƒbƒY”ä‚OD‚V‚Ui‚X‚T“‚b‚hF‚OD‚T‚X|‚OD‚X‚WjB

The risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was Increased with children's use of electric blankets or mattress pad [0R = 2.75; 95%CI = 1.52-4.98) and three other electrical appliances (hair dryers, video machines in arcades, and video games connected to a television), but the patterns of risk for duration in years of use and frequency of use were inconsistent for most appliances used by children.

Žq‹Ÿ‚ª“d‹C–Ñ•z‚âƒ}ƒbƒgƒŒƒX‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚½ê‡‚Ì‚`‚k‚k‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚Í2.75”{i‚X‚T“‚b‚hF‚PD‚T‚Q|‚SD‚X‚Wj‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚»‚Ì‘¼‚Ì“d‹C‹@ŠíiƒwƒAƒhƒ‰ƒCƒ„AƒQ[ƒ€ƒZƒ“ƒ^[‚ł̃rƒfƒIƒQ[ƒ€A‰Æ’ë‚ł̃eƒŒƒrƒWƒ‡ƒ“‚ł̃rƒfƒIƒQ[ƒ€j‚àƒŠƒXƒN‚𑝉ÁA‚µ‚©‚µAŽg—p‚Ì•p“x‚âŽg—p”N”‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚Í–¾Šm‚Å‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

Risks rose with increasing number of hours per day children spent watching television, but risks were similar regardless of the visual distance from the television.

Žq‹Ÿ‚ªƒeƒŒƒr‚ðŒ©‚éŽžŠÔ‚ª’·‚¢‚ƃŠƒXƒN‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éBƒeƒŒƒrƒWƒ‡ƒ“‚ÌŽ‹‹——£‚Í‹ß‚­‚ÅŒ©‚Ä‚àA—£‚ê‚Ä‚Ý‚Ä‚àƒŠƒXƒN‚Ì’ö“x‚Í“¯‚¶‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

The inconsistency in the dose-response patterns for many appliances, reporting and selection bias, and the lack of an effect for measured 60 Hertz magnetic fields or wire codes in our companion study must be considered before ascribing these associations to exposures from magnetic fields.

‘½‚­‚Ì‹@ŠíŽg—p‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é—ʁ\”½‰žŠÖŒW‚Ì•sŠm‚©‚³A‘I‘ðƒoƒCƒAƒXA‹@Ší‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‚ÌŽÀ‘ª‚ªˆ×‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢‚±‚ƂȂǂ́A‚±‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚É‚Æ‚Á‚āA¡Œã‚̉ۑè‚Å‚ ‚éB

@‹»–¡‚Ì‚ ‚é•û‚ÍŒ´’˜‚ð“Ç‚ñ‚Å‚­‚¾‚³‚¢B

 

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‚P‚SDHatch‚̘_•¶‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚·‚éNIH@Release 1998 ‰Æ“d»•i@

 

NIH News Release
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
@@National Cancer Institute
EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE@Monday, April 20, 1998@6:00 PM Eastern Time@NCI Press Office@(301) 496-6641

1998”N4ŒŽ20“ú@ƒAƒƒŠƒJE‘—§‚ªƒ“Œ¤‹†Š@•ñ“¹”­•\

Magnetic Fields Associated With Electrical Appliances Are Considered
@Unlikely@To Increase the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
‰Æ“d»•i‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‚͏¬Ž™‹}«ƒŠƒ“ƒp«”’ŒŒ•a‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚·‚é‚Æ‚Í‚¢‚¦‚È‚¢B

Several investigators from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) released a report in the May issue of Epidemiology* concluding that it is unlikely that magnetic fields from household electrical appliances increase a child's chance of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
5
ŒŽ†‚̉uŠwŽ‚ɁA‘—§‚ªƒ“Œ¤‹†Š‚ÌŒ¤‹†ŽÒ‚́A‰Æ“d»•i‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE–\˜I‚É‚æ‚鏬Ž™”’ŒŒ•ai‹}«ƒŠƒ“ƒp«”’ŒŒ•aFALLj‚̃ŠƒXƒN‘‰Á‚́A‚ ‚è‚»‚¤‚à‚È‚¢A‚ÆŒ‹˜_•t‚¯‚½”­•\i’‚Pj‚ðs‚Á‚½B

ALL accounts for 70 percent to 80 percent of all childhood leukemias and one-third of all childhood cancers in the United States.
ALL
‚͏¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•a‚Ì70-80%‚ðè‚߁A‚Ü‚½A‘S¬Ž™‚ªƒ“‚Ì3•ª‚Ì‚P‚ðè‚ß‚éB

Only a small percentage of cases of ALL have a known cause.
ALL
‚ÌŒ´ˆö‚́A‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç‚í‚©‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

Beginning in 1979, some studies suggested that magnetic fields (EMFs) may increase the risk for ALL while others have found no evidence for risk.
‚P‚X‚V‚X”NˆÈ—ˆA‚ ‚錤‹†‚ÍŽ¥ŠEi“dŽ¥”gj‚ªALL‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚³‚¹‚é‚ƁA‚Ü‚½ˆê•û‚Å‚ÍŽ¥ŠE‚ªƒŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚³‚¹‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤Ø‹’‚Í‚È‚¢‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚«‚½B

EMFs are produced by power lines, electrical wiring and household electrical appliances.
“dŽ¥ŠE‚́A‘—“düA”z“düA‰Æ“d»•i‚©‚ç•úŽË‚³‚ê‚éB

Researchers from NCI in collaboration with the Children's Cancer Group (CCG), a network of pediatric oncologists and other researchers across the U.S., published an earlier report** in July 1997 that showed little evidence that the EMF from high current power lines or from high levels of magnetic fields measured in the home were associated with an increased risk of ALL in children.

‘—§‚ªƒ“Œ¤‹†Š‚ÌŒ¤‹†ŽÒ‚́A‘S•Ä‚̏¬Ž™‚ªƒ“Œ¤‹†ŽÒ‚¨‚æ‚ÑŠÖ˜A‚·‚錤‹†ŽÒ‚̃lƒbƒgƒ[ƒN‚Å‚ ‚鏬Ž™‚ªƒ“Œ¤‹†ƒOƒ‹[ƒviCCGj‚Æ‹¤‚ɁA1997”N7ŒŽ‚ÉŒ¤‹†¬‰Êi’‚Qj‚ð”­•\‚µ‚½B‚»‚ê‚́A‘—“dü‚©‚ç‚Ì“dŽ¥ŠE‚â‰Æ’ë‚Å‘ª’肳‚ꂽ‚‚¢Ž¥ŠE‹­“x‚͏¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•aALL‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚³‚¹‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤ŠmØ‚Í‚È‚¢A‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB

The current study, also a collaboration between NCI and CCG, is the first large study of childhood ALL and electrical appliances.
‚±‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚́A‘—§‚ªƒ“Œ¤‹†Š‚ÆCCG‚Ì‹¦—͂ōs‚í‚ꂽAÅ‰‚́A‘å‹K–͂ȁA‰Æ“d»•i‚Ə¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•aALL‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚Ì’²¸‚Å‚ ‚éB

The researchers compared the exposure to household electrical appliances of 640 children diagnosed with ALL to the exposure of 640 matched controls
Echildren of the same age, race and place of residence without the disease. (The same cases and controls were used in the two NCI/CCG studies).
640
–¼‚ÌALL‚Ɛf’f‚³‚ꂽÇ—á‚ƁA”N—îE«EŽíEZ‹’nˆæ‚ðƒ}ƒbƒ`‚³‚¹‚½640–¼‚̑ΏƂɑ΂µ‚āA‰×“d»•i‚ÌŽg—pó‹µi”˜˜Ió‹µj‚ð”äŠr‚µ‚½B

The data are based on the mothers' responses to a detailed questionnaire about their appliance use during pregnancy as well as their child's use.
•êe‚ւ̃Cƒ“ƒ^ƒrƒ…[‚É‚æ‚èA•êe‚̉Ɠd‹@Ší‚ÌŽg—pó‹µ‚ÆŽq‹Ÿ‚ÌŽg—pó‹µ‚ðA“üŽè‚µ‚½B

TVs, electric blankets, microwaves, hair dryers, stereo systems, heating pads and computers were some of the appliances included in the study.
ƒeƒŒƒrA“d‹C–Ñ•zA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒWAƒwƒAƒhƒ‰ƒCƒ„AƒXƒeƒŒƒIAƒpƒ\ƒRƒ“‚È‚Ç‚ª–{Œ¤‹†‚̑ΏۂƂȂÁ‚½B

No measurements were taken of magnetic fields associated with the actual appliances used.
ŽÀÛ‚ÌŽ¥ŠE˜R‰k‚Ȃǂ͍s‚í‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

The authors were unable to draw a clear conclusion from the data.
Œ¤‹†ŽÒ‚Í‚±‚ê‚ç‚̃f[ƒ^‚©‚ç–¾Šm‚ÈŒ‹˜_‚ðo‚·‚±‚Æ‚Í‚Å‚«‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

Although the data showed some association between appliance use and leukemia, there was no consistent pattern of increasing risk with increasing exposures.
‚¢‚­‚‚©‚Ì‹@ŠíŽg—p‚Í”’ŒŒ•a‚Æ‚ÌŠÖ˜A«‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªAŽg—pi”˜˜Ij‚Ì‘‰Á‚ƃŠƒXƒN‚Ì‘‰Á‚̈ê’肵‚½ŠÖ˜A«‚ª‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

The scientists speculate that the magnetic fields from electrical appliances are unlikely to increase the risk of childhood ALL.
Œ¤‹†ŽÒ‚́A‰Æ“d»•i‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‚ª¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•aALL‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚·‚é‚Æ‚ÍŽv‚¦‚È‚¢A‚Ɛ„‘ª‚µ‚½B

The contribution of home appliances to a person's total EMF exposure is thought to be small because most appliances are used for short periods of time and EMF exposures are elevated only close to the appliance.
‰Æ“d»•i‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‚ªAŒÂl‚Ì‘SŽ¥ŠE–\˜I‚ɐè‚߂銄‡‚͏¬‚³‚¢‚ƍl‚¦‚ç‚ê‚éA‚È‚º‚È‚ç‚Γd‹C‹@Ší‚ÌŽg—p‚Í’ZŽžŠÔ‚Å‚ ‚èA‹@Ší‚ɋߐڂµ‚½ê‡‚É‚Ì‚Ý‘å‚«‚ÈŽ¥ŠE‚ðŽó‚¯‚é‚©‚ç‚Å‚ ‚éB

It is more difficult to assess the contribution of appliances to EMF exposures than that of power lines and building wiring.
‘—“dü‚â”z“dü‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE–\˜I‚É”ä‚ׂāA‰Æ“d»•i‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE–\˜I‚ÌŠñ—^—¦‚Ì•]‰¿‚͓‚¢B

This is because for each appliance, the magnetic field varies greatly with distance, and frequently neither the distance of the person from the appliance nor how often an appliance is on or off can be reconstructed accurately from interviews.
Ž¥ŠE‚Í‹@Ší‚Æ‚Ì‹——£‚Å‘å‚«‚­•Ï‚í‚èA‹@Ší‚Æ‚Ì‹——£‚¾‚¯‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A•p“x‚àˆÙ‚È‚éA“dŒ¹‚ð‚Ç‚Ì‚­‚ç‚¢ƒIƒ“EƒIƒt‚·‚é‚©‚ȂǁAƒCƒ“ƒ^ƒrƒ…[‚É‚æ‚éî•ñ‚©‚琳Šm‚É•]‰¿‚·‚邱‚Ƃ͍¢“ï‚Å‚ ‚éB

These preliminary findings are part of a more comprehensive study being conducted by the CCG looking for possible causes of childhood ALL.
‚±‚Ì—\”õ“I‚Ȑ¬‰Ê‚́A¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•aALL‚ÌŒ´ˆö‰ð–¾‚Ì‚½‚ß‚ÌCCG‚É‚æ‚Á‚č¡Œãs‚í‚ê‚é‚Å‚ ‚낤–{Ši“I‚ÈŒ¤‹†‚̈ꕔ‚Æ‚È‚éB

In the larger study, many risk factors other than EMF are being evaluated in more than 1,900 children diagnosed with ALL between 1989 and 1993.
1989
”N‚©‚ç1993”N‚É‚©‚¯‚ÄALL‚Ɛf’f‚³‚ꂽ1900–¼‚̏Ǘá‚ð‘ΏۂƂµ‚½‘å‹K–Í‚ÈŒ¤‹†‚ł́A“dŽ¥ŠEˆÈŠO‚̃ŠƒXƒN—vˆö‚à•]‰¿‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB

These include exposures of children to infectious agents in the home or neighborhood, exposures of parents to radiation or chemicals at work, medications used by the mother during pregnancy, alcohol use, and lifestyle of the parents. Results are expected in two years.
‚±‚ê‚ç‚Ì—vˆö‚Æ‚µ‚āA‰Æ’ë‚â‹ß—ׂł̊´õ•ai“`õ•aj‚Ì—vˆöAe‚Ì•úŽËü‚âE‹Æ“I‚ȉ»Šw•¨Ž¿‚̉e‹¿A•êe‚Ì”DP’†‚̈ã–ò•i‚̉e‹¿AƒAƒ‹ƒR[ƒ‹ˆù—¿A—¼e‚̃‰ƒCƒtƒXƒ^ƒCƒ‹‚̉e‹¿‚È‚Ç‚Å‚ ‚èAŒ¤‹†‚Í“ñ”N“x‚É‚Ü‚Æ‚Ü‚é—\’è‚Å‚ ‚éB

For more information about cancer visit NCI's Website for patients, public and the mass media at http://rex.nci.nih.gov or NCI's main website at http://www.nci.nih.gov.
‚³‚ç‚ɏڍׂȏî•ñ‚͍‘—§‚ªƒ“Œ¤‹†Š‚ÌWEB‚ðŒ©‚Ä‚­‚¾‚³‚¢B

–––––––––––
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*The study is titled "Association Between Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Use of Electrical Appliances During Pregnancy and Childhood." The authors are Elizabeth E. Hatch, Martha S. Linet, et al:  Epidemiology, May 1998.

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**The study is titled "Residential Magnetic Field Exposures and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia." The authors are Martha S. Linet, Elizabeth E. Hatch
@et al: NEJM, July 3, 1997.

 

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‚P‚S‚`DHatch‚̘_•¶‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚·‚éNIH@Release 1998 ‰Æ“d»•i‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‚p•‚`

 

14€‚ŁANIH‚Ì•ñ“¹”­•\‚ÌŠT—v‚ð•ñ‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½‚ªAŠÖ˜A‚µ‚āAQ&A‚Æ‚µ‚ā@ˆÈ‰º‚Ì•¶‘‚à”­•\‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B
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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH   National Cancer Institute

For Response to Inquiries
@EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE
Monday, April 20, 1998
@6:00 PM Eastern Time
@NCI Press Office@(301) 496-6641

Questions and Answers
About the NCI/CCG Study of the Magnetic Fields Associated With
@Electrical Appliances and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

7. What conclusions can be drawn from the results?
‚±‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚©‚牽‚ª‚í‚©‚é‚©H

Although the results from this study are preliminary, the authors tentatively conclude that magnetic fields from electrical appliances are unlikely to increase the risk of childhood ALL.
‚±‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚Í—\”õ“I‚ÈŒ¤‹†‚Å‚ ‚èA’˜ŽÒ‚͉Ɠd»•i‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‚͏¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•aALL‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚³‚¹‚é‚Æ‚Í‚¢‚¦‚È‚¢A‚ð‰¼‚ÌŒ‹˜_‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB

Further detailed studies with measurements would be needed to determine whether the findings, if replicated, could represent any effects of magnetic field exposure.
‹@Ší‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE˜R‰k‚ÌŽÀ‘Ô’²¸‚àŠÜ‚ß‚½Ú×‚ȏ«—ˆ‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚ª•K—v‚Å‚ ‚éB
‚à‚µ‚»‚¤‚µ‚½Œ¤‹†‚ªs‚í‚ê‚ê‚΁AŽ¥ŠE‚̉e‹¿‚ª‚í‚©‚éB

This conclusion is based on several factors: A major factor is the failure to see a consistent pattern of increasing risk with increasing exposures for most of the appliances.

¡‰ñ‚ÌŒ¤‹†‚ÌŒ‹˜_‚É‚Í‚³‚Ü‚´‚Ü‚È—vˆö‚ªŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB‘å‚«‚È—vˆö‚́A‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç‚Ì‹@Ší‚ÌŽg—piŽ¥ŠE”˜˜Ij‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚āAŽg—piŽ¥ŠE–\˜Ij‚Ì‘‰Á‚ƃŠƒXƒN‚Ì‘‰Á‚Ɉê’è‚̃pƒ^[ƒ“‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ê‚È‚¢‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éB

In addition, the results for television were similar regardless of the child's distance from the TV, suggesting that other factors associated with TV use (not magnetic fields) may have been responsible for this result.
‰Á‚¦‚āAƒeƒŒƒrƒWƒ‡ƒ“‚Æ‚ÌŠÖŒW‚ł́AŽq‹Ÿ‚ªƒeƒŒƒr‚ðŒ©‚é‹——£‚Æ‚ÌŠÖ˜A‚ª‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚±‚ƂŁAŒ©‚é‹——£‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŽ¥ŠE‚Ì‘å‚«‚³‚͕ω»‚·‚é‚Í‚¸‚ŁAƒeƒŒƒr‚ðŒ©‚éiƒeƒŒƒr‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠEj‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A‘¼‚Ì—vˆö‚ª‰B‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‰Â”\«‚ª‚ ‚éB

Preliminary findings from a small study that measured actual magnetic field levels at varying distances from TVs found that magnetic fields are nearly the same as
@background levels at distances of more than three or four feet from television sets.
ƒeƒŒƒrƒWƒ‡ƒ“ŽóM‹@‚©‚ç˜R‰k‚·‚鎥ŠE‚ðŽÀ‘ª‚µ‚½Œ¤‹†‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁AƒeƒŒƒr‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‚Í‚R‚È‚¢‚µ‚SƒtƒB[ƒg—£‚ê‚ê‚΁A”wŒi‚ÌŽ¥ŠE‹­“x‚Æ“¯‚¶ƒŒƒxƒ‹‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

As the proportion of US households with a television increased from 9 percent to 95 percent between 1950 and 1970, whereas there was no corresponding increase in childhood leukemia rates during this time period, suggesting that television watching is unlikely to be a causal factor.
ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚É‚¨‚¯‚éƒeƒŒƒrƒWƒ‡ƒ“Žó‘œ‹@‚Ì•‹y—¦‚́A1950”N‚Ì9%‚©‚ç1970”N‚Ì95%‚Æ‘‰Á‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é¡
‚±‚Ì‘‰Á‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚µ‚﬎™”’ŒŒ•a‚Í‘‰Á‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢‚±‚Æ‚©‚çAƒeƒŒƒr‚ÌŽ‹’®‚ÍŒ´ˆö‚Æ‚È‚é—vˆö‚Æ‚ÍŽv‚¦‚È‚¢B@

Children's exposure to other electrical appliances has also increased dramatically over the last 50 years.
Žq‹Ÿ‚Ì‘¼‚Ì“dŽq‹@Ší‚©‚ç‚ÌŽ¥ŠE”˜˜I‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ä‚àA‰ß‹Ž50”NŠÔA‚»‚ê‚ç‚Ì‹@Ší‚Ì•‹y—¦‚Ì‘‰Á‚Í’˜‚µ‚¢B

Finally, the companion study with the same cases and controls, failed to find consistent evidence based on measurements and wire coding (an indirect measure of magnetic fields based on the thickness, configuration, and distance from the home of nearby power lines) that high magnetic fields levels in the home (produced mainly by outside power lines) increase the risk for ALL.
ÅŒã‚ɁA‘¼‚̏Ǘá‘Ώƌ¤‹†‚́A‰Æ‚ÌŠO‚Ì“d—͐ü‚É‚æ‚é‰Æ’ë“à‚Ì‹­‚¢Ž¥ŠE–\˜I‚́AŽÀ‘ª’l‚Å‚àAƒƒCƒ„[ƒR[ƒh‚Å‚Ì•]‰¿‚Å‚àA¬Ž™”’ŒŒ•aALL‚̃ŠƒXƒN‚𑝉Á‚·‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤Žñ”öˆêŠÑ‚µ‚½Ø‹’‚Í“¾‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

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http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/07/dining/07induction.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
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Is Induction Cooking Ready to Go Mainstream?
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–ƒAƒƒŠƒJ”­s‚Ì2013”N‘S¢ŠE‚ÌŽsê’²¸•ñ‘‚©‚ç@@
http://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/13/03/p3457434/induction-hobs-market-new-market-research-report-published-by-transpare
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––––––––––––––––––––
Induction Hobs Market
New Market Research Report Published by Transparency@Market Research @
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March 29, 2013

gHousehold Induction Cook-tops (Hobs)Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2012 2018@‰Æ’ë—pIH’²—Ší‚ÌŽsêF2012-2018”N‚Ì‘S¢ŠE‚É‚¨‚¯‚éŽY‹Æ‰ðÍA‹K–́AƒVƒFƒAA¬’·AŒXŒüA“W–]"‚ªŠ§s‚³‚ꂽB

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(6)
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(7)
“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Å’²—‚³‚ꂽH•¨‚Í–{Ž¿“I‚ɐH•¨“à‚Ì•¨Ž¿\¬‚ð•Ï‚¦‚éB‚»‚Ì‚½‚ߏÁ‰»ŠíŒn“‚ɏáŠQ‚ð‚à‚½‚ç‚·B

ˆÈã‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚©‚çAƒƒVƒA‚Å‚Í1976”N‚É“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ÍŽg—p‚ª‹ÖŽ~‚³‚ê‚Ü‚µ‚½B
––––––––––––––––––––––––––

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‚µ‚©‚µA‚悤‚â‚­AˆÈ‰º‚̃TƒCƒg‚ŁAƒƒVƒA‚Å‚Ì‹K§ó‹µ‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éî•ñ‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½B
1
ŽŸî•ñ‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚̂ŁA–{“–‚ɐM—Š‚µ‚Ä—Ç‚¢î•ñ‚È‚Ì‚©A”»’f‚É–À‚¤“_‚Í‚ ‚邪AŽQlî•ñ‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŒfÚ‚µ‚Ü‚·B
2011
”N8ŒŽ‚̏î•ñ‚Å‚·B

http://www.apparentlyapparel.com/2/post/2011/08/why-did-russia-ban-the-use-of-microwave-ovens.html
@‚̃TƒCƒg‚É‚ ‚Á‚½“à—e

–––––––––@@•”•ª“I‚Ɉø—p–––––––––––––––

Why Did Russia Ban The Use of Microwave Ovens?@‚È‚ºƒƒVƒA‚Å‚Í“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ÌŽg—p‚ª‹ÖŽ~‚³‚ꂽ‚Ì‚©H

08/18/2011

 

In Russia, microwave ovens were banned in 1976 because of their negative health consequences as many studies were conducted on their use.
The ban was lifted after Perestroika in the early 90
fs

 

ƒƒVƒAi‹Œƒ\˜Aj‚ł́A1976”N‚É“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ÌŽg—p‚ª–@—¥‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä‹ÖŽ~‚³‚ê‚Ü‚µ‚½B
——R‚Í—lX‚ÈŒ¤‹†‚ÅŒ’N‚ɉA«Œ‹‰Êiˆ«‚¢Œ‹‰Êj‚ª”»‚Á‚½‚©‚ç‚Å‚·B

‚±‚Ì‹K§‚́A1990”N‘㏉“ª‚̃yƒŒƒXƒgƒƒCƒJŒã‚É‰ðœ‚³‚ꂽB
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚ƂŁA‚Æ‚è‚ ‚¦‚¸‚̓ƒVƒA‚Ì“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‹K§‚Í‰ðœ‚³‚ꂽA‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚Ì—l‚Å‚·B


’Ç‹L1FƒƒVƒAŒê”ÅWikipedia‚Ì“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì•Å‚É‚ ‚Á‚½“à—e‚©‚ç
2016-2-27

ˆÈ‰º‚̓ƒVƒAŒê”Å‚ÌWikipeida‚Ì“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì•Å‚©‚çA‹@ŠB‰p–󂵁A‚»‚ê‚ð˜a–󂵂Ă ‚è‚Ü‚·B

–––––––––––––––
25 on October 1955 the year the American company «Tappan Company» for the first time introduced a domestic microwave oven.
1955
”N10ŒŽ25“úAƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚̉ïŽÐTappan‚ª‰Æ’ë—p“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ð‰‚ß‚ÄŽsê“Š“ü‚µ‚½B

The first serial domestic microwave oven was released Japanese firm Sharp in 1962. Initially, the new product demand has been low.
Å‰‚́AŒp‘±‚µ‚Ä”„‚ç‚ꂽ‰Æ’ë—p“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Æ‚µ‚āA1962”N‚É“ú–{‚̃Vƒƒ[ƒv‚ª”Ì”„ŠJŽn‚µ‚½‚ªA‚±‚̐V»•i‚ÌŽù—v‚Í’á‚©‚Á‚½B

In the Soviet Union since the early '80s microwaves produced in factories ZIL (model "ZIL") and Southern Machine Building Plant (model "Mriya CF"). Tambov plant "Elektropribor" ("Electronics" model): Dnipro Machine Building Plant, Lenin (DMZ) produced "Dnepryanka1" (1990, 32 liters, the magnetron M1051, the power consumption of 1300 watts, the microwave power is 600 watts, weight 41kg, the price of 350 rubles) and "Dnepryanka 2".
ƒ\ƒrƒGƒg˜A–M‚ł́A1980”N‘ã‚̏‰“ª‚ɁAZILHê‚ªZILŒ^“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ðA“ì‹@ŠB»‘¢Hê‚ªMriya CFŒ^“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚𐻑¢ŠJŽn‚µ‚½B
Tanbov
Hê‚́uElektropriborv‚ðADnipro‹@ŠB»‘¢H‹Æ‚̃Œ[ƒjƒ“Hê(DMZ)‚ªDnepryanka1i1990”NA32ƒŠƒbƒgƒ‹Aƒ}ƒOƒlƒgƒƒ“‚ÍM1051Œ`AÁ”ï“d—Í1300WAƒ}ƒCƒNƒ”go—Í600WAd—Ê41kgA‰¿Ši‚Í350ƒ‹[ƒuƒ‹j‚ÆDnepryanka 2‚𐻑¢‚µ‚½B
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

ƒ\˜A‚̃yƒŒƒXƒgƒƒCƒJ‚ƌĂ΂ê‚é‰üŠv‰^“®‚́AƒSƒ‹ƒoƒ`ƒ‡ƒt‚É‚æ‚Á‚āA1985”NˆÈ~‚ɍs‚í‚ê‚Í‚¶‚߁A1987”N‚̃ƒVƒAŠv–½70Žü”N‚ð‹L”O‚·‚éŒRŽ–ƒpƒŒ[ƒh‚ŁAƒyƒŒƒXƒgƒƒCƒJ‚ª‘å‚«‚­Žæ‚èã‚°‚ç‚ꂽB

]‚Á‚āAƒƒVƒAŒê”ÅWikipeida‚Ì‹Lq‚ª³‚µ‚¢‚Æ‚·‚ê‚΁Aƒ\˜A‚̃yƒŒƒXƒgƒƒCƒJ‚ªŽn‚܂鏭‚µ‘O‚Ì1980”N‘㏉“ª‚É‚Í“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ª»‘¢‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB

u1976”N‚ɃƒVƒA‚Å“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‹ÖŽ~AƒyƒŒƒXƒgƒƒCƒJˆÈ~‚É‹ÖŽ~‚ª‰ðœ‚³‚ꂽv‚Æ‚¢‚¤à‚ɂ́A–µ‚‚ª‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚éB


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ˆÈ‰º‚̓AƒƒŠƒJ‚̃}ƒCƒNƒ”g‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚錤‹†Š‚̃tƒH[ƒ‰ƒ€‚É‚ ‚Á‚½î•ñ‚ŁAê–å‰Æ‚ª‰ß‹Ž‚Ì—š—ð‚©‚ç”»’f‚µ‚āAƒƒVƒA‚ª“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ðs‚Á‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰\‚͐^ŽÀ‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ðŽ¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB

https://impiorg.wordpress.com/2012/06/13/did-russia-ban-microwave-ovens-at-some-point-in-the-past/@
‚É‚ ‚Á‚½“à—e‚ɉ¼–ó‚ð’ljÁ‚µ‚½B

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
impiorg
INTERNATIONAL MICROWAVE POWER INSTITUTE
ʹS FORUM FOR MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY DISCUSSION
ƒ}ƒCƒNƒ”g‹Zp‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é“¢˜_‚ׂ̈̍‘Ûƒ}ƒCƒNƒ”g“d—ÍŒ¤‹†Š‚̃tƒH[ƒ‰ƒ€

Did Russia ban microwave ovens at some point in the past?
ƒƒVƒA‚͉ߋŽ‚Ì‚ ‚鎞Šú‚É“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ð–@‹K§‚µ‚½‚©H

2/27/2016

There Was No Ban on Microwave Ovens in the USSR.
ƒ\˜A‚Å‚Ì“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

In the last issue, Bob Schiffmann stated that the
gRussians did for some short period of time ban the sale of microwave ovensh.
‘O†‚ÅBob Schiffmann‚́uƒƒVƒA‚Å‚Í‚ ‚é’ZŠúŠÔ‚̊ԁA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚̔̔„‚ð–@‹K§‚µ‚½v‚Əq‚ׂĂ¢‚éB

I believe this is not true and in the following I present ample evidence supporting my belief.
Ž„‚́A‚±‚ê‚͐^ŽÀ‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚ƐM‚¶‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚»‚µ‚Ĉȉº‚ÉŽ„‚ÍŽ„‚ªM‚¸‚é\•ª‚ÈŠmØ‚ðŽ¦‚·B

I have been intimately involved with microwave ovens since 1968 and I have in my extensive historical coverage of the field cited evidence of development of microwave ovens in the USSR in the 1970
fs, including a brochure on gA super-high‑frequency ovenh in 1971, an ad for the gElectronikah oven in 1980 and discussions with Soviet scientists on ovens in 1977.
Ž„‚Í1968”NˆÈ—ˆAS‚Ì’ê‚©‚ç“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚É‚©‚©‚í‚Á‚Ä‚«‚½B
‚»‚µ‚āA1970”N‘ã‚̃\˜A‚É‚¨‚¯‚é“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì”­“W‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ĉø—p‚³‚ê‚éŠmØ‚̍L”͂ȉߋŽ‚Ì‹L˜^‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB
‚»‚ê‚ɂ́A1971”N‚Ì’´‚Žü”g“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚̍ûŽq‚âA1980”N‚ÌElectronika‚Æ‚¢‚¤“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚̍LA1977”N‚É“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ă\˜A‚̉ȊwŽÒ‚Æ‚Ì“¢˜_‚Ì‹L˜^‚ªŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB

But the evidence is even much more extensive and so I present here a record of the many events that support the idea that microwave ovens never were banned in the USSR.
‚±‚ê‚ç‚ÌŠmØ‚Í‚æ‚èL”Í‚Å‚ ‚邪Aƒ\˜A‚É’u‚¢‚Ä“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ªŒˆ‚µ‚Ä–@‹K§‚³‚ê‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ðŽ¦‚·‘½‚­‚̏o—ˆŽ–‚Ì‹L˜^‚ð‚±‚±‚ÉŽ¦‚·B

Key events:
@d—v‚È—v‘f

 

1969: Dr Karel Marha, of Czechoslovakia, presents paper at the 1969 Richmond symposium on microwave bio-effects and visits Raytheon Co.

1969”NFƒ`ƒFƒRƒXƒƒoƒLƒA‚ÌKarel Marha”ŽŽm‚́A1969”Nƒ}ƒCƒNƒ”g‚ÌŒ’N‰e‹¿‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚郊ƒbƒ`ƒ‚ƒ“ƒhƒVƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚ōu‰‰‚µARaytheonŽÐ‚ð–K–₵‚½B

‚ge prepared an affidavit that describes how leakage radiation is monitored near microwave ovens in Czechoslovakia, at a horizontal distance of at least 25 cm. from the oven door and at the height of the head and gonads.
”ނ́Aƒ`ƒFƒRƒXƒƒoƒLƒA‚É‚¨‚¯‚é“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚©‚ç‚Ì“dŽ¥”g˜R‰k‚ª”@‰½‚ÉŠÇ—‚̃hƒA‚©‚琅•½25cm‚Ì‹——£‚ƁA“ª•”‚Ɛ¶BŠí‚̍‚‚³‚Łj‚ɂ‚¢‚Đ鐾‹Ÿq‘‚ð€”õ‚µ‚½B‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚©i“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW

He contributes a paper describing safety considerations in
gEastern Europeh for the special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory & Techniques in 1971 for which I was guest editor.
No mention of bans ever came from Dr. Marha.
”Þ‚Í1971”N‚É”­s‚³‚ꂽIEEE‚ÌTransactions on Microwave Theory & TechniquesŽ‚Ì“ÁW†‚ŁA“Œ‰¢”‘‚̈À‘SŠÇ—‚ɂ‚¢‚āA‹Lq‚µ‚½B
Ž„‚Í‚±‚̍†‚Ì‹qˆõ•ÒWŽÒ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚±‚Ì‹LŽ–‚Å‚Í“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ɂ͐G‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

1973: At the IMPI symposium in Loughborough, in the U.K. there were extensive discussions on the safety of microwave ovens and Dr. P. Czerski, of Poland agreed with me at the podium that the U.S.
gemission standardh for microwave ovens was compatible with exposure standards in Eastern Europe, and therefore there was no reason why ovens with leakage limits as in the U.S. would not be acceptable in the Eastern European countries..

1973”NF‰p‘‚ÌLoughborough‚ÅŠJÃ‚³‚ꂽIMPIƒVƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚ŁA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚̈À‘S«‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éL”Í‚È‹c˜_‚ªs‚í‚ꂽB
’dã‚Ń|[ƒ‰ƒ“ƒh‚ÌP. Czerski”ŽŽm‚́A“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚ÌçtŽË‹KŠi‚Í“Œ‰¢”‘‚Ì”˜˜IŠî€‚Æ“™‰¿‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚āAŽ„‚ƈӌ©‚̈ê’v‚ð‚Ý‚½B
‚»‚µ‚āAƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚ÌçtŽËŠî€‚ª“Œ‰¢”‘‚Ŏ󂯓ü‚ê‚ç‚ê‚È‚¢——R‚Í‚È‚¢A‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½B

These views were also included in a symposium in Poland which Dr. P. Czerski chaired. My contact with Dr. Czerski was extensive including a visit by him to my home with many hours of stimulating discussions.
‚±‚ÌŒ©Ž¯‚ÍP. Czerski”ŽŽm‚ª‹c’·‚𖱂߂½ƒ|[ƒ‰ƒ“ƒh‚ÅŠJÃ‚³‚ꂽƒVƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚Å‚àÐ‰î‚³‚ꂽB
Ž„‚ÆP. Czerski”ŽŽm‚̘A—‚͍L”͂ɂ킽‚èAŽ„‚̉Ƃɔނª—ˆ‚āA‰½ŽžŠÔ‚à‚̈ӌ©ŒðŠ·‚ðs‚Á‚½‚肵‚Ä‚¢‚éB

1976: IMPI symposium in Belgium
no reports of a ban on microwave ovens in the USSR.
1976
”NFƒxƒ‹ƒM[‚ÅŠJÃ‚³‚ꂽIMPIƒVƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚ŁAƒ\˜A‚É‚¨‚¯‚é“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é•ñ‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

1970
fs: In the world of international frequency allocations it is known that in the USSR there is the ISM band at 2.375 GHz for microwave ovens. But at the 1979 World Administrative Conference the USSR agreed to move the ISM band to 2.45 GHz making the 2.45 GHz band recognized throughout the world.
1970
”N‘ãF‘ÛŽü”g””z•ª‚Ì‹Æ–±‚Ì’†‚ŁAƒ\˜A‚Í“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ׂ̈É2.375GHz‚ðISMƒoƒ“ƒh‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽg—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½B
‚»‚µ‚āA1979”N‚̐¢ŠE–³üŠÇ—’¡‰ï‹ciBEMSJ’FŠe‘‚ÅŽg—p‚·‚é–³üŽü”g”‚Ì”z•ª‚ðŒˆ‚ß‚é‰ï‹cj‚ŁAƒ\˜A‚Í2.45GHz‚𐢊E‹¤’Ê‚ÌISMƒoƒ“ƒh‚Ɉڍs‚·‚邱‚Ƃɍ‡ˆÓ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB

1977: At the IMPI symposium (I believe in Minneapolis) I had extensive discussions with Drs. Los and Dumansky from the Ukraine. No mention of any ban on ovens.
1977
”NFƒ~ƒlƒAƒ|ƒŠƒX‚ÅŠJÃ‚Æ‹L‰¯‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邪AIMPIƒVƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚ÅŽ„‚̓EƒNƒ‰ƒCƒi‚©‚ç‚«‚½Los”ŽŽm‚ÆDumansky”ŽŽm‚ƍL”͂Ȉӌ©ŒðŠ·‚ðs‚Á‚½‚ªA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ă͉½‚à˜_‹y‚ª–³‚©‚Á‚½B

1977; 1979; At conferences on microwave bioeffects in Airlie , Virginia and Seattle, WA extensive discussions are held with scientists and engineers from the USSR and no hint of an oven ban is ever mentioned.
1977
”N‚Æ1979”NFƒo[ƒWƒjƒAB‚ÅŠJÃA‚Ü‚½ƒƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“B‚̃VƒAƒgƒ‹‚ÅŠJÃ‚³‚ꂽƒ}ƒCƒNƒ”g‚ÌŒ’N‰e‹¿‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‰ï‹c‚ŁAƒ\˜A‚©‚ç‚«‚½‰ÈŠwŽÒ‚Æ‹ZpŽÒ‚ƍL”͂Ȉӌ©‚ÌŒðŠ·‚ðs‚Á‚½‚ªA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚·‚é‚悤‚Șb‚ÍŠF–³‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B

~1980: I had extensive discussions with a celebrated engineer, who had defected from the USSR, on microwave technology in the USSR
both at Raytheon and in Washington, D. C. where he lived.no mention of a ban on ovens.
1980
”NˆÈ~Fƒ\˜A‚©‚ç—£’E‚µ‚½—L–¼‚È‹ZpŽÒ‚ƁAƒŒƒCƒZƒIƒ“ŽÐ‚ŁA‚Ü‚½”Þ‚ªZ‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚½ƒƒVƒ“ƒgƒ“‚c‚b‚ŁAŽ„‚͍L”͂Ȉӌ©‚ÌŒðŠ·‚ðs‚Á‚½‚ªA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ẮA‰½‚ç‚̘_‹y‚à‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

1980
fs the presentFI attended many meetings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society where scientists from Eastern Europe were often present. Never did I hear about a ban on microwave ovens.
1980
”N‘ã‚©‚猻Ý‚܂ŁFŽ„‚Í“Œ‰¢”‘‚©‚ç‚̉ȊwŽÒ‚ªŽQ‰Á‚·‚鐶‘Ì“dŽ¥”gŠw‰ï‚ÌŠô‘½‚̉‚ɏoÈ‚µ‚½‚ªA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚ẮA‰½‚à•·‚­‚±‚Æ‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½B

~1995: At both the IMPI symposium and a conference on crossed-field tubes at the University of Michigan there was evidence of microwave oven development in Russia but no mention of a ban.
1995
”NˆÈ~Fƒ~ƒVƒKƒ“‘åŠw‚ÅŠJÃ‚³‚ꂽŒð·“dŽ¥ŠEŒ^^‹óŠÇ‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éIMPIƒVƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚Ɖï‹c‚Ì—¼•û‚ŁAƒƒVƒA‚É‚¨‚¯‚é“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì”­“W‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é•ñ‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªA–@‹K§‚ɂ͐G‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

1968 the present; I have attended almost all of the IMPI symposia. Even though many of the attendees are from Europee.g. Per Risman, never have I heard at an IMPI meeting the rumor that ovens were banned in the USSR.
1968
”N‚©‚猻Ý‚܂ŁFŽ„‚Í–w‚Ç‘S‚Ä‚ÌIMPIƒVƒ“ƒ|ƒWƒEƒ€‚ÉŽQ‰Á‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB
Per Risman
‚Ȃǂ̉¢B‚©‚ç‚Í‘½”‚ÌŽQ‰ÁŽÒ‚ª‚ ‚邪AIMPI‚̉‚Ń\˜A‚ª“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ðs‚Á‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰\‚́A‚Ü‚Á‚½‚­•·‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

1980
fs to the present; Many contacts with representatives of magnetron suppliers in Russia, including Istok/Svetlana; with no mention of an oven ban
1980
”N‚©‚猻Ý‚܂ŁFIstok/Svetlana‚È‚Ç‚ðŠÜ‚ÞƒƒVƒA‚̃}ƒOƒlƒgƒƒ“»‘¢‰ïŽÐ‚Ì‘ã•\‚ÆŠô‘½‚̐ڐG‚ª‚ ‚邪A“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚É‚ÍŒ¾‹y‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢B

In addition to my experience I asked two people who visited the USSR many times in the last 40 years and they both report never hearing of a ban on microwave ovens while in the USSR
cf. Prof. A.W. Guy who made at least 12 trips and Ric Tell (of EPA fame) who made several trips.
Ž„‚ÌŒoŒ±‚ɉÁ‚¦‚āAŽ„‚́A‰ß‹Ž40”NŠÔ‚ɂ킽‚Á‚Đ”‘½‚­ƒ\˜A‚ð–K–₵‚Ä‚¢‚é2–¼‚Ì•û‚É•·‚¢‚½‚ªA—¼–¼‹¤‚Ƀ\˜A‚Å“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ì–@‹K§‚ªs‚í‚ꂽ‚±‚Æ‚Í•·‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢‚Æ•ñ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éAGuy‹³Žö‚͏­‚È‚­‚Æ‚à12‰ñATellŽ‚Í‘½‚­‚̉ñ”Aƒ\˜A‚ɍs‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

As cited above, we in Raytheon were able to procure and test the
gElectronikah oven. It operated at 2.45 GHz and showed leakage values between 0.5 and 1.0 mW/cm2i.e. good enough to pass the FDA emission standard even though never legally processed for imports. It is interesting to read the ad (translation) for this oven in the Russian gEconomic Newsh in the Spring of 1980.
ˆÈã‚ɏq‚ׂ½‚悤‚ɁA‰äX‚̓AƒƒŠƒJ‚̃ŒƒCƒZƒIƒ“‚É‹‚āAƒ\˜A»‚ÌElectronika‚Æ‚¢‚¤“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ðw“ü‚Å‚«A‚©‚ÂŽŽŒ±‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚½B
‚»‚Ì“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Í2.45GHz‚Å“®ì‚µA˜R‰k“dŽ¥”g‚Í0.5‚©‚ç1.0mw/cm2 ‚ÌŠÔ‚É‚ ‚Á‚½B
‚±‚Ì’l‚́AƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚ÌFDA‚Ì‹KŠi‚ɍ‡’v‚µA—A“ü‚ð–@“I‚ɍ·‚µŽ~‚߂邱‚Æ‚Í‚È‚¢ƒŒƒxƒ‹‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B
1980”Nt†‚̃ƒVƒA‚̐V•·uEconomic Newsv‚ÉŒfÚ‚³‚ꂽ‚±‚Ì“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‹LŽ–‚ð“Ç‚Þ‚±‚Æ‚Í‹»–¡[‚¢B
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http://www.yaplakal.com/forum2/topic1075080.html
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2jHertel‚ÌŽÀŒ±‚Ì•ñFHertel‚ç1992”NJournal Franz Weber‹LŽ–
‹LF‚Q‚O‚P‚U|‚R|‚P‚U

Hartel
‚Æ‹¤“¯Œ¤‹†ŽÒBernald H. Blanc‚ª1992”N‚É”­s‚³‚ꂽŽGŽJournal Franz WeberiƒXƒCƒX‚Å”­sAƒhƒCƒcŒê”łƃtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê”Å‚µ‚©‚È‚¢B¸“Ç•t‚«‚ÌŠwpŽGŽ‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢Bj‚ɁgVergleichende Untersuchungen über die Beeinflussung des Menschen durch konventionell und im Mikrowellenofen aufbereitete Nahrungh‚Æ‚¢‚¤˜_•¶‚Å‚Í‚È‚­‹LŽ–‚ð‘‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚éB
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Journal Franz Weber
‚Ì1992”N”­s@No.19‚Ɉȉº‚Ì‹LŽ–‚ª‚ ‚éB
“–ŠY‚Ì•Å‚¾‚¯‚̉摜ƒtƒ@ƒCƒ‹‚́@‚±‚¿‚ç‚Ɂ@
•\Ž†‚ðˆÈ‰º‚ÉŽ¦‚·B


“üŽè‚µ‚½‰æ‘œƒtƒ@ƒCƒ‹‚©‚çOCR‚ŃeƒLƒXƒg‰»‚µAƒhƒCƒcŒê‚ð‹@ŠB‰p–󂵁ABEMSJ‚ª‰p–ó‚ðŒ³‚É˜a–󂵂½B

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Der vollständige Rapport der Untersuchung
=The full report of the investigation
=
’²¸‚Ì‘S•¶

Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Beeinflussung des Menschen
@durch konventionell und im Mikrowellenofen aufbereitete Nahrung
= Comparative studies on the influence of the people through food prepared in the microwave oven and conventional
=
“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Å‚Ì’²—‚Ə]—ˆ‚Ì’²—‚É‚æ‚élX‚ւ̉e‹¿‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é”äŠrŒ¤‹†

Prof. Bernard H. Blanc, Institut für Biochemie an der Eidgenösschen Techmschen Hochschule, 1015 Lausanne
und
Dr. Hans U. Hertel, Umweltbiologische Forschung und Beratung, 3135 Wattenwil

1.
@Einleitung
1. Introduction
1. ‚Í‚¶‚ß‚É

Seit mehr als einem Jahrzehnt finden Mikrowellenöfen - anfänglich im den USA, heute auch in Europa - zunehmend Verwendung für die Aufbereitung von Nahrung im Restaurationsbetrieb, aber auch im privaten Haushalt.
= For more than a decade, microwave ovens - find initially in the United States, today also in Europe - increasingly use for the preparation of food in the restaurant operation, but also in the private household.
=
\”NˆÈã‚ɂ킽‚Á‚āA“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒWi“–‰‚̓AƒƒŠƒJ‡O‘‚ÅŽg—p‚³‚êŽn‚߁A¡“ú‚ł̓ˆ[ƒƒbƒp‚Å‚àŽg—p‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éj‚̓ŒƒXƒgƒ‰ƒ“‚ł̐HÞ‚Ì’²—‚ÉŽg—p‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‘‚¦A‚³‚ç‚ɁAŒÂl‚̉ƒë‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚à‚µ‚©‚è‚Å‚ ‚éB

Verkürzung und Vereinfachung der Mahlzeitenzubereitung, Bequemlichkeit und verminderte Kosten für die Elektrizitat dienen als Verkaufsargumente.
Shortening and simplifying the meal preparation, convenience and reduced costs for the electricity used as selling points.
’ZŽžŠÔ‚ŁAŠÈ’P‚ɐHŽ–‚̏€”õ‚ª‚Å‚«A—˜•Ö«‚Æ“d‹C—¿‹à‚̐ߖñ‚Í‹@Ší‚̃Z[ƒ‹ƒXƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

Zahlreiche Kochbücher sind zur unterstützung dieser Kochtechnik und der Verkäufe solcher öfen entstanden und sorgen zusammen mit wissenschaftlichen Empfehlungen für deren zunehmende Verbreitung.
Numerous Cookbooks are created to support this cooking technique and the sales of such stoves and ensure their growth together with scientific recommendations.
=
‚±‚Ì’²—‚Ì‹Zp‚Æ“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚̔̔„‚ðƒTƒ|[ƒg‚·‚éˆ×‚ƁA‰ÈŠw“I‚Ȑ„§‚ð‹¤‚É‚±‚Ì’²—–@‚ð•ÛØ‚·‚éˆ×‚ɁA‘½‚­‚Ì—¿—–{‚ªŠ§s‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB

‚Æ‚¢‚¤˜•¶‚©‚çŽn‚Ü‚èAƒhƒCƒcŒê‚Å5ƒy[ƒW‚ɂ킽‚Á‚āA—lX‚È‚±‚Æ‚ª‘‚©‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB
‚Æ‚Ä‚àA‘S•¶‚ðƒhƒCƒcŒê‚©‚ç‰p–óE˜a–ó‚Í‚Å‚«‚È‚¢B
ˆÈ‰º‚̉ӏŠ‚¾‚¯‚ð–|–󂵂Ă݂½B

4
@Analysen und Beobachtungen  an den verschiedenen@Nahrungsmittel-Varianten
4 FAnalysis and observations on the different food
4F‚³‚Ü‚´‚܂ȐH•i‚Ì•ªÍ‚ÆŠÏŽ@

4.1
@Die Milch
4.1@ƒ~ƒ‹ƒN

Die im Mikrowellenofen aufgekochte
@Milch änderte sich somit in einigen wesentlichen Kriterien, nämlich (siehe Tabelle l ):
The milk boiled in a microwave oven changed thus in some essential criteria, namely (see table l):
“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Ń~ƒ‹ƒN‚ð‰Á”M‚µ‚½‚ç‚¢‚­‚‚©‚Ì—v‘f‚ª•Ï‰»‚µ‚½Ad—v‚È—v‘f‚ð•\1‚ÉŽ¦‚·B

Talle 1 - Die 4 Milch-Varianten
= table 1 - the 4 milk options
=
•\1F 4Ží‚Ì‹“û‚̕ω»

ƒeƒXƒg‚̊

¶‚̃~ƒ‹ƒN

]—ˆ‚Ì’²—–@‚ł̃~ƒ‹ƒN

‰Á”MŽE‹Û–@

‚ł̃~ƒ‹ƒN

“dŽqƒŒƒ“ƒW‚Å

’²—‚µ‚½ƒ~ƒ‹ƒN

Ž‰–b•ª@%

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.0

ƒ^ƒ“ƒpƒNŽ¿ %

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

×–E”

524,000

520,000

540,000

523,000

”ñ’`”’Ž¿’‚‘fmg%

67.9

67.2

74.1

91.9

”ñƒJƒ[ƒCƒ“’‚‘f@mg%

0.99

0.71

1.05

0.92

ƒrƒ^ƒ~ƒ“A IU (Roch)

900

1,000

1,300

1,200

ƒrƒ^ƒ~ƒ“C mg (Roch)

17.0

18.2

17.9

18.1

—tŽ_(Roch)

58.0

46.0

48.0

42.0

Ž_«“xSH

6.16

6.14

6.20

6.30

pH

6.75

6.73

6.72

6.72

Ž_‘f@mg/l

7.70

4.60

7.70

4.80

”S“xcp

162,471

171,135

164,951

‘ª’è•s”\

“`“±—¦m.s.

5.03

4.95

5.04

5.00

‘͐ϕ¨g

0.003

0.004

0.002

0.008

Œ°”÷‹¾‚Å‚ÌŽ‰–b‚̍\‘¢

•’Ê

•’Ê

•’Ê

‹‘å‚ȃtƒH[ƒ€

 

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